Conditions & Treatments

Advanced Laparoscopy

Your BASS medical team may recommend advanced laparoscopy for you for a number of reasons including:

  • Biopsy
  • Diagnosis or treatment

Common conditions treated through advanced laparoscopy include:

  • Issues involving the pelvis
  • Abdomen,
  • Urinary and reproductive systems
  • Certain cancers

Often, advanced laparoscopy can be used to repair or remove damaged parts of organs.

Advanced Laparoscopy
Allergy & Immunology

You should see an allergy immunologist if you have any of the following symptoms:

  • Itchy eyes
  • Sneezing
  • Runny nose
  • Stuffy nose
  • A chronic cold that won’t go away
  • Frequent infections
  • Continuous sinus headache
  • Loss of the ability to smell
  • Cough
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Wheezing
  • Hives
  • Chronic rash
Allergy & Immunology
Bariatric Medicine

Some the conditions that Bariatric Medical Specialists treat include:

  • Diabetes
  • Hypertension
  • Heart disease
  • Another chronic condition
Bariatric Medicine
Bariatric Surgery

Weight loss surgery could be an option if you have any of the following symptoms: 

  • Efforts to lose weight with diet and exercise have been unsuccessful
  • Your body mass index (BMI) is 40 or higher
  • Your BMI is 35 or more and you have a serious weight-related health problem, such as type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure or severe sleep apnea
  • You're a teenager who's gone through puberty, your BMI is 35 or more, and you have serious obesity-related health problems, such as type 2 diabetes or severe sleep apnea
Bariatric Surgery
Breast Cancer & Surgery

Breast Anatomy

The breast is made of glands that make milk called lobules, small tubes that carry the milk to the nipple called ducts, and fatty tissue, blood vessels and lymph. 75% of all breast cancer cases begin in the cells of the milk ducts. It often starts as a precancerous condition called DCIS (ductal carcinoma in situ) which is usually detected on your mammogram. It can progress into a cancer called ductal carcinoma. The second most common kind of breast cancer is Lobular carcinoma and it develop from your lobules (milk sacs).

A rare, but important cancer of the breast is called inflammatory breast cancer, where there is no lump and the breast appears red and swollen, and warm. It is more malicious than the other main types of breast cancer and is often mistaken for an infection.

Most breast lumps are benign, not cancerous, and do not spread.

Symptoms may include:

  • A lump or mass that is painless and hard
  • Swelling of the breast
  • Skin irritation or dimpling
  • Breast pain
  • Nipple pain
  • Nipple turning inward
  • Redness
  • Thickening of the skin
  • Nipple discharge

Risk Factors

  • Being a woman
  • Risk increases with age
  • Genetic risk-BRCA1, BRCA2, and other gene mutations associated with breast cancer
  • Family history - if the patient has a family history, genetic testing for BRCA genes is recommended
  • White, African American
  • Dense breast tissue
  • Benign breast changes
  • Women who began menstruation before age 12 or post-menopausal women over 55
  • Radiation treatments at some point in their lives
  • Women who have no children or have them after age 30
  • Alcohol is directly linked to an increased risk of breast cancer
  • Obesity is also linked to a higher risk

High Risk Breast Lesions

There are several lesions found in the breasts which are not a type of cancer but are an indicator that you are at a higher than normal risk of developing a breast cancer. These are often found by the radiologist on mammogram and can include things like:

  • Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS)

Types of Malignant Breast Conditions

  1. Ductal carcinoma in situ - A precancerous condition located within the milk ducts. Under certain conditions DCIS can evolve to become breast cancer. It is often discovered on a mammogram.
  2. Invasive Ductal Carcinoma – Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) is the most common breast cancer. It starts in the duct and invades the breast tissues and can affect nearby lymph nodes.
  3. Invasive Lobular Carcinoma – Invasive Lobular carcinoma (ILC) starts in the milk glands, and spreads to the breast tissue and nearby lymph nodes, and other parts of the body.

Breast Cancer Subtypes

  1. Hormone receptor positive - the cancer is expressing estrogen receptors (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors, meaning these cancers depend on these hormones in order to grow. Hormone receptor positive cancer is most frequent in postmenopausal women. 60-75% of all breast cancers have estrogen and progesterone receptors.
  2. HER2 positive - these cancers depend on a gene to grow. The gene is named the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. These cancers tend to grow more quickly, but there are several effective drugs for this subtype.
  3. Triple negative - when a tumor doesn’t express ER, PR and/or HER2, it is called Triple Negative- and makes up about 15% of cases of invasive breast cancer. This subtype grows more quickly that HER2 positive, and hormone receptor positive ER and PR. But it is very sensitive to chemotherapy. Triple- negative is more common in young women, and especially in young black women. Triple negative is the most common type of breast cancer diagnosed in women with the BRCA1 mutation.
  4. BRCA 1 &2 are inherited gene mutations that increase the risk of breast and ovarian cancer. Together these mutations account for about 25% of hereditary cancers, and 10% of all breast cancers. A positive test means the patient has an increased risk of breast cancer. This section should be moved, it is not a type of breast cancer, also the percentages should be checked
Breast Cancer & Surgery

You should see a cardiologist if you have any of the following symptoms:

  • Shortness of breath
  • Dizziness
  • Palpitations
  • High blood pressure
  • Chest pain

If you find yourself unable to breath or gasping for air please call 911.

Critical Care Medicine

Conditions that require such focused care are illnesses or injuries that threaten life such as those that might occur with a car accident, severe burns, drug-resistant infection, severe bleeding, a heart attack, a stroke, kidney failure, and heart failure, among others.

Critical Care Medicine

Symptoms may include:

  • Concerning or new skin growths, such as changing moles
  • Severe new rashes
  • Psoriasis
  • Eczema
  • Acne
Diagnostic Radiology


These can be used to:

  • Detect anything from blood vessel diseases to tumors
  • Diagnose knee and shoulder issues because they provide the best view of ligaments, tendons and muscles


These can be used to:

  • Diagnose arthritis
  • Pinpoint tumors
  • Locate blocked blood vessels
Diagnostic Radiology

At BASS Medical Group, each of our endocrinologists has extensive training in diagnosing and treating many disorders including:

  • Cancers affecting endocrine glands or associated with excessive hormone secretion
  • Diabetes
  • Disorders of calcium caused by parathyroid disease
  • Excess male hormone in women
  • Gestational diabetes
  • Hyper/hypoglycemia
  • Hyper/hypothyroidism
  • Hypogonadism (low testosterone) in men
  • Menopausal symptoms
  • Metabolic disorders
  • Obesity
  • Osteoporosis
  • Polycystic Ovarian Disease
  • Prediabetes
  • Thyroid cancer
  • Thyroid nodules
Family Medicine

Our qualified family physicians are able to diagnose, treat, and manage a broad range of conditions and diseases. They can help you if you have:

  • Acute illnesses such as

         - Common cold

         - Flu

         - Strep throat

         - Bronchitis

         - Ear or sinus infections

         - Urinary tract infections

         - Other infections

  • Chronic conditions such as

        - Allergies

        - Asthma

        - Arthritis

        - COPD

        - Diabetes

        - High cholesterol

  • Joint, neck, or back pain
  • Headaches
  • Injuries that do not require emergency medical attention
Family Medicine
Female Urology

Our urologists are experts in caring for the following women’s health concerns, and more:

  • Bladder leakage or overactive bladder (including offering Botox injection treatment, when appropriate)
  • Inflamed or irritated bladder (interstitial cystitis)
  • Urinary frequency, urgency, incontinence, or retention
  • Recurring urinary tract infections or urinary tract pain
  • Urinary tract fistulas or fecal incontinence
  • Pelvic pain or pressure and pelvic floor disorders such as prolapse
  • Vaginal laxity, dryness, or loss of sensitivity
Female Urology
General Surgery

Adrenal Gland Symptoms

  • Upper body obesity, round face and neck, and thinning arms and legs
  • Skin problems, such as acne or reddish-blue streaks on the abdomen or underarm area
  • High blood pressure
  • Muscle and bone weakness
  • Moodiness, irritability, or depression
  • High blood sugars
  • Slow growth rates in children

Breast Cancer

  • A lump or mass that is painless and hard
  • Swelling of the breast
  • Skin irritation or dimpling
  • Breast pain
  • Nipple pain
  • Nipple turning inward
  • Redness
  • Thickening of the skin
  • Nipple discharge

Colon and Rectal Cancer

While these signs and symptoms are also recommended for noncancerous conditions, when these symptoms are recent, severe, long lasting and change over time it is important to see your physician.

  • A change in bowl habits, like diarrhea, constipation or a sensation that you need to have a bowel movement.
  • Rectal bleeding, bright red or dark blood in the stool
  • Discomfort such as frequent gas, bloating, fullness and cramps
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Fatigue
  • Unexplained iron deficiency anemia


  • Abscess formation
  • Bleeding and perforation of the colon
  • Narrowing of the colon (stricture)
  • Fistula formation

Female Reconstructive Surgery

  • Constipation
  • Pelvic pain
  • Sexual dysfunction
  • Female sexual dysfunction
  • Fecal incontinence
  • Defecatory disorders

Gallbladder Disease

Often gallstones are found on an x-ray or ultrasound, that was done for other reasons. When gallstones don’t cause symptoms, they commonly do not require further evaluation, unless there is pain, nausea, vomiting or fever.

Symptoms occur when gallstones block the bile duct and inflame the gallbladder, causing intermittent pain, or constant discomfort in the upper abdomen which can radiate into the right shoulder. It is associated with sweating, nausea, vomiting and can produce chest pain, and is often confused with a heart attack.

Diagnoses is based on symptoms. Abdominal tenderness and abnormal liver function tests are indications. An ultrasound is the standard test to diagnose a gallstone.

Hemorrhoids, Fissures, and Fistula

  • Bleeding after a bowel movement
  • Blood in the stool
  • External itching, pain, and discomfort


Most often the first symptom is a bulge under the skin. It may be painless, but can create discomfort, and enlarge to become visible when coughing or doing strenuous activity, and in certain positions. At this stage,the bulge can be pushed back into the abdomen, and is called a reducible hernia.

But, when the hernia enlarges, it can become incarcerated meaning it is trapped, and is unable to be pushed back into the abdomen.

Pancreatic Cancer

  • Abdominal bloating
  • Digestive problems
  • Jaundice
  • Weight loss
  • Loss of appetite
  • Elevated blood sugar levels
  • Abdominal pain
  • Sudden change in blood sugar levels

Spleen Conditions

  • Fullness or bloating
  • Pain in the upper left abdomen or back
  • Anorexia
  • Gastric reflux
  • Fever
  • Night sweats
  • Weakness and fatigue
  • Bruising easily
  • Weight loss

Thyroid and Parathyroid disease Overview

  • This disease will cause osteopenia, significant osteoporosis and bone fractures.
  • Most people have symptoms like low energy, fatigue, headaches, sleeplessness, irritability, high blood pressure and difficulty concentrating, poor memory, GERD, muscle aches and pain, bone pain, low sex drive, and heart rhythm problems.
  • In more severe cases it can cause gastric ulcers, pancreatitis and kidney stones. Importantly, severe depression results in about 20% of patients.

Umbilical / Ventral / Incisional Hernias

  • The inability to push the hernia back into the body
  • Pain and tissue damage
  • Change in color
  • Infection
General Surgery

You should see a geriatrician if you have any of the following symptoms:

  • Incontinence, both urinary and fecal
  • Dementia
  • Alzheimer’s Disease
  • Decline in motor skills and memory function
  • Pressure ulcers
  • Pain management
  • Various podiatric (feet) complications
  • Various sleep disorders
  • Various forms of cancer
  • Arthritis and rheumatism
  • Diabetes
  • Prostate complications
  • Immune disorders
  • Congestive heart failure
  • Cataracts Cardiovascular disease
  • Pneumonia
  • Muscle loss and/or weakness
  • Parkinson’s Disease and many other diseases affecting the elderly
Gynecologic Oncology

Gynecologic cancers, like most cancers, are caused by a malfunction with the genes that regulate excessive cell growth and prevent tumors. Factors such as smoking, aging, inherited mutations, or human papillomavirus (HPV) can all contribute to the dysfunction of these genes. HPV is the most common sexually transmitted disease and is the main reason cervical cancer develops. While some HPV strains can be harmless, others have the potential to cause normal tissue to turn into cancerous cells.

Every woman is at risk for developing a gynecologic cancer, but there are simple ways to ensure that any abnormalities are caught before they turn into a larger medical issue. While regular screening tests are the most effective way to find a disease in its earliest stages, cervical cancer is the only gynecological cancer for which such a test exists. The test, called a Pap smear, looks for precancerous cells in the cervix. If you are above the age of 21 and have an average risk of getting cervical cancer, it is recommended that you get a Pap smear every three years. There is also a variety of vaccines that protect against the most common cancer-causing strains of HPV; they can be administered to anyone ages 9 to 26.

Regardless of your risk level, performing self-examinations and paying attention to your body are the two best ways to spot abnormalities.

Common signs and symptoms include:

  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding or discharge
  • Pelvic pressure or pain
  • The frequent urge to urinate
  • Bloating
  • Abdominal pain
  • Changes in the appearance of the vulva
  • Pain or tenderness of the vulva

Gynecologic Oncology
Infectious Disease

Most common infections and diseases can be treated by your primary physician so if you suspect you have an infection, your first step should be scheduling an appointment with them. Your primary may refer you to an ID specialist if you have:

- An infection they are unable to diagnose

- An infection that is not responding to treatment

- A surgical incision or wound that is not healing

- An infection that involves long-term care (HIV/AIDS, chronic hepatitis)

- Travel plans to a country with a high risk of infection

Infectious Disease
Internal Medicine

Our internists are qualified to diagnose, treat, and manage a variety of conditions such as:

  • Acute illnesses including viruses, infections, and rashes
  • Chronic illnesses, including hypertension, asthma, diabetes, arthritis
  • Muscle sprains and strains
  • Back pain
  • Sleep disorders
  • Mental disorders including depression and anxiety
Internal Medicine

Oftentimes, the symptoms of kidney disease are mild and can be common to many conditions, meaning they can easily go unnoticed. Signs that your kidneys are not working properly include lethargy, swelling (caused by fluid retention), change in urine, nausea, vomiting, anemia, or dry skin.

Neuro-Interventional Radiology

Symptoms include:

  • Unusual masses
  • Traumatic lesions in the head and neck area
  • Pain on or around spine
  • Headaches
  • Dizziness
  • Blurry vision
  • Seizures
  • Loss of memory
Neuro-Interventional Radiology
Neurological Surgery and Spinal Care

At BASS Medical Group, our neurosurgeons treat the full spectrum of neurological diseases and disorders including:

  • Degenerative conditions

       - Arthritis

       - Lumbar spondylolisthesis

       - Herniated disc

       - Myelopathy

       - Radiculopathy

       - Neurogenic claudication

       - Spinal deformity

  • Brain and pituitary tumors
  • Movement disorders (Parkinson’s Disease, essential tremor, and dystonia)
  • Spine Tumors
  • Pain conditions
  • Vascular conditions including

    - Trigeminal neuralgia/facial pain

    - Cerebral aneurysms

    - Subarachnoid hemorrhage

    - Arterio-venous malformations

    - Cavernous malformations

  • Spine Trauma

    - Central cord syndrome

    - Spinal cord injury

    - Compression fracture

    - Traumatic spinal instability

  • Peripheral nerve conditions (carpal tunnel syndrome and compressive ulnar neuropathy)
  • Trauma/hydrocephalus (malignant cerebral edema, subdural hematoma, concussion)
Neurological Surgery and Spinal Care

Neurologists treat neurological conditions, which are problems that affect the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. These conditions include:

  • Stroke
  • Epilepsy
  • Headaches and migraines
  • Brain tumors
  • Brain aneurysms
  • Peripheral neuropathy
  • Sleep disorders
  • Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease
  • Neuromuscular diseases, such as myasthenia gravis, multiple sclerosis (MS), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
  • Infections of the nervous system, such as encephalitis, meningitis, and HIV

Symptoms that may require an appointment with an OB/GYN specialist include:

  • Chronic Pelvic Pain
  • Female sexuality issues
  • Fibroids
  • Fistulas
  • General physicals
  • Immunizations and injections
  • Ovarian Cysts
  • Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Urinary Tract Infection
  • Uterine, vaginal and vulvar disorders
  • Vaginal yeast infections
  • Vulvodynia
  • Warts and premalignant lesions of the lower reproductive tract

At BASS,we currently have seven physicians who specialize in sports medicine, orthopedic surgery, or both. Our physicians are board certified and are qualified to diagnose,manage, and treat a wide range of orthopedic conditions including:

·  Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

·  Cubital Tunnel Syndrome

·  Hand Fractures

·  Ligaments

·  Meniscus

·  Shoulder Pain

Otolaryngology (ENT)

Ear Symptoms:

  • Ear infection
  • Hearing loss
  • Cholesteatoma
  • Ruptured eardrum

Nasal Symptoms:

  • Chronic rhinorrhea or runny nose
  • Nasal obstruction
  • Nasal mass
  • Sinusitis (Sinus infection)
  • Nosebleeds

Throat Symptoms:

  • Tonsillitis/Sore Throat
  • Hoarseness
  • Sleep apnea
  • Vocal cord paralysis
  • Swallowing problems

Head and Neck Symptoms:

  • Head and neck mass
  • Enlarged or diseased lymph nodes
Otolaryngology (ENT)
Pain Medicine

Pain can be caused by a variety of issues, such as injury, surgery, nerve damage, or metabolic problems, but it can also arise with no obvious cause. Persistent or intense pain often greatly affects a person’s life, including their decision-making processes, their ability to maintain relationships, and their happiness, so it is important for those who experience it to get help. As pain cases can be complex, it is best to seek out the knowledge and expertise of a trained pain medicine physician.

Common Conditions

At BASS Medical Group, our pain specialists treat a broad spectrum of conditions including:

- Arthritis

- Bone spurs

- Bulging disc

- Cancer Related Pain

- Chronic pain after knee or shoulder replacement

- Complex regional pain syndromes (reflex sympathetic dystrophy; causalgia)

- Failed Back Syndrome

- Fibromyalgia

- Headaches

- Joint pain (knee hip, shoulder, elbow)

- Myofascial pain syndromes

- Neck, Back, or Spinal Pain

- Pain after surgery (back, hernia, etc.)

- Pelvic pain

- Peripheral neuropathy

- Pinched nerve

- Sacroiliac pain syndromes

- Sciatica

- Spinal stenosis

- Work and sport-related injuries

Pain Medicine
Pediatric ENT

Here are four signs you should see a pediatric ear, nose and throat doctor as soon as possible:

  • Snoring
  • Persistent nosebleeds
  • Hearing loss
  • Problems swallowing
Pediatric ENT

Reach out to your pediatrician if your child has any of the following symptoms:

  • High Fever
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Coughs, colds, or other respiratory problems
  • Rash
  • Pain while using the restroom

If you’re experiencing foot, ankle or lower leg pain, skin or nail issues, shoe problems, uncomfortable bumps or lumps, or have diabetes, poor circulation, arthritis, kidney disease, lupus, or fibromyalgia, contact a BASS podiatrist for an assessment and appropriate health maintenance. Your footing is our top priority.


Our specialists diagnose and treat a broad range of conditions including:

  • Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
  • Asthma
  • Bronchiectasis
  • Chronic cough
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
  • Emphysema
  • Interstitial lung disease
  • Lung cancer
  • Lung masses
  • Occupational lung disease
  • Pulmonary hypertension
  • Pulmonary tuberculosis
  • Pulmonary vascular disease
  • Sarcoidosis of the lungs
  • Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
  • Sleep disorders

        - Obstructive sleep apnea

        - Narcolepsy

        - Restless leg syndrome

        - Insomnia

        - Circadian rhythm disorders

Sleep Medicine

An apnea is defined as a cessation of air exchange for at least 10 seconds, accompanied by a drop in oxygen level and by a brain wave “micro wakeup “when the patient breaths. These pauses in breathing continue throughout the night and may occur as often as 1000 times during the night. Those with sleep apnea usually have no problem falling asleep, and they are unaware that they are afflicted with the disorder. Bed partners frequently describe the symptoms accurately.

Sleep apnea occurs across all segments of the population, and if left untreated, can lead to increased risk of heart disease, high blood pressure, stroke, increased chance of type 2 diabetes, cardiac arrhythmia's and other illnesses.  Daytime tiredness also leads to an increased chance of automobile accidents and may cause errors in judgment and concentration that may cause injury, job loss, relationship problems, depression, and even death.

Symptoms may include:

  • Loud snoring
  • Breath holds followed by a large gasping breath
  • Daytime tiredness.

Other conditions we treat:

  • Restless Leg Syndrome
  • Periodic Limb Movements
  • Narcolepsy
  • Idiopathic Hypersomnia

There are three main types of sleep apnea:

  1. Obstructive sleep apnea. This is the most common form of apnea. It occurs because of a reduction in the opening of the breathing passage, behind the tongue. During sleep,  the throat muscles relax, and when the patient inhales,  there is a negative force that leads to collapse and closure of the airway, even though the patient is making an effort to breathe.
  1. Central sleep apnea. This occurs when the brain fails to send proper signals to the muscles that control breathing. The airway is actually open, but there is no effort to breathe
  1. Complex sleep apnea. This occurs when a person has both obstructive sleep apnea and central sleep apnea.

All forms of sleep apnea are treatable, and proper treatment lead to a better quality of life.

Risk Factors

People that are obese have a much greater probability of developing sleep apnea.  Although many people of normal body mass index have sleep apnea as well due to a narrow airway, large tonsils or adenoids, or formation of the jaw that compromises the airway. Non-obese people, however, also may have sleep apnea because of a narrow airway, or a large tongue, or a retro positioned tongue, and children may have large tonsils or adenoids.

Other risk factors include being male, family history, smoking, use of alcohol, sedatives or tranquilizers, and nasal congestion.

Sleep Medicine
Sports Medicine

At BASS Medical Group, our sports medicine physicians see a variety of patients including athletes, dancers, musicians, and performing artists of all ages and ability levels. They are board-certified in sports medicine, and some hold board certifications in other specialties such as internal medicine or orthopedic surgery. Our physicians with multi-specialty experience are able to apply their interdisciplinary knowledge and insight to all areas of their practice and are qualified to treat a broad range of conditions.

Each of our sports medicine physicians has extensive training in diagnosing and treating the following conditions:

  • Strains
  • Sprains
  • Syndromes
  • Arthritis
  • Cartilage damage
  • Tendonitis
  • Tendinitis
  • Calcific tendon problems
  • Swelling in joints
  • Bursitis
  • Stress fractures
  • Fractures
  • Nerve problems
  • Pain
Sports Medicine
Surgical Critical Care

Similar to our Critical Care Medicine specialists, Surgical Critical Care specialists provide close care and monitoring for severely ill patients. But, their perspective on the task is slightly different because they bring a strong focus on surgical aspects – before, during and after a severe illness. Indeed, BASS Medical Surgical Critical Care specialists have expertise in disease and trauma, surgical interventions, post-surgical recovery, and the unique challenges presented by injury due to burns, trauma, infections, and more.

Surgical Critical Care

Here at BASS, our thoracic surgeons specialize in:

Esophageal Cancer

Unfortunately, the symptoms of esophageal cancer can be difficult to detect, particularly in the early stages where there might be no symptoms. Later stage symptoms may include:

  • Difficulty or pain swallowing
  • Chest pain or pressure
  • Heartburn or a burning sensation
  • Weight loss
  • Persistent coughing or hoarseness of the voice


As the disease develops slowly, the patient will also develop symptoms over time, which may include:

  • Shortness of breath
  • Coughing
  • Wheezing
  • Decreased tolerance for exercise or excretion

Hiatal Hernia

  • Heartburn
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
  • Bitter or sour taste at the back of your throat
  • Chest or abdominal pain
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Belching
  • Coughing


Typically, symptoms include excessive sweating of the:

  • Palms of the hands
  • Soles of the feet
  • Armpits
  • Face

Lung Cancer

  • A cough that won’t go away or gets worse
  • Chest pain when breathing , coughing or laughing
  • Hoarseness
  • Unintended Weight loss and loss of appetite
  • Coughing up blood
  • Shortness of breath
  • Feeling weak and tired
  • Bronchitis and pneumonia that keep coming back
  • Wheezing


  • Pain under the rib cage
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Painful coughing
  • Pain, swelling or lumps in the abdomen or chest
  • Unusual weight loss

Our urologists at BASS are trained to treat the full spectrum of urologic conditions.

  • Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)
  • Genitourinary Cancers - Prostate - Bladder - Kidney - Testicular
  • Overactive Bladder
  • Kidney stones
  • Vasectomy
  • Urinary incontinence
  • Low Testosterone (Hypogonadism)
  • Urinary tract infections (UTIs)
  • Urinary tract reconstruction
  • Circumcisions
  • Hydroceles

To learn more about urology at BASS, we encourage you to contact us and schedule an appointment.


Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)

Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) affects the circulation of blood to your legs. A buildup of fatty, waxy plaque deposits called atherosclerosis, narrows or blocks the major arteries. Often patients will suffer from cramping or aching in their buttocks, thighs, or calves after a short walk. When PAD progresses, patients will notice non-healing ulcers around their ankles or development of gangrene. Many of these patients are then at risk of losing their limbs.

The patients usually at risk for the development of PAD are: Diabetic, Smokers, Hypertensive and High Cholesterol

All the symptoms are related to a lack of blood flow in the affected areas.

  • Intermittent Claudication- this is pain or discomfort in the affected muscles that gets worse when exercising or even walking, and is relieved by rest, due to lack of blood flow. When exercising your muscles need extra oxygen to function. When the arteries are blocked the muscles don’t get the needed oxygen. This causes difficulty walking or climbing stairs, and cramping in the affected legs, buttocks, thighs, calves, and feet.
  • Weak or absent pulses in the ankles, legs or feet
  • Sores on the toes, feet or legs that heal slowly or not at all
  • Cooler skin temperature on the affected areas
  • Poor nail growth on toes and lost hair on legs
  • Erectile dysfunction

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

The largest artery in your body is the aorta. It runs from the heart down through your chest and into your abdominal region. This region is responsible for delivering blood to your legs, GI tract, and kidneys. When the walls of the aorta progressively weaken and begin to expand, an aneurysm occurs. If left untreated, it will rupture, create internal bleeding and possibly death. The majority of patients are asymptomatic and in some case, they will feel unexplained pain in their abdomen or back.

Patients that are prone to suffer from Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAAs) are males with a history of aneurysms in the family, patients diagnosed with Peripheral Arterial Disease, Smokers, the Elderly, those with chronic lung disease and, Hypertensive Individuals.

Venous ulcers and arterial ulcers have different characteristics and risk factors.

  1. Venous ulcers
  • Superficial
  • Irregular in shape
  • Painful due to edema, phlebitis or infection
  • Usually appear on the lower leg and ankle, and
  • Often contact dermatitis develops
  1. Arterial Ulcers
  • Thick, bright red granulation tissue
  • With a punched out appearance and smooth edges
  • Painful at night
  • Found most often on the lateral foot, but
  • Can be found anywhere on the lower leg and foot
  • Lower legs feel cool to the touch
  • Skin is shiny, taut and thin
  • Loss of hair growth on lower limbs
  • May be due to peripheral arterial disease
  • Often results after a trivial trauma

Carotid artery disease

There are four arteries that supply blood flow to the brain: two vertebral arteries passing along the back of the neck, and two carotid arteries passing in front of the neck. Narrowing of the carotid arteries in front of the neck is the most common condition for these vessels. The narrowing is due to a fatty, waxy plaque buildup. This buildup occurs over time, putting a patient at risk for a stroke.

Most often patients with carotid artery disease are asymptomatic and are identified by their personal physician as having a “whooshing” sound in the neck, also known as bruit (pronounced “brewee”). A minority of patients do experience sudden symptoms of transient ischemic attacks (mini-strokes) that are due to temporary reduction of blood circulation to one part of the brain. If the symptoms last longer than 24 hours, the patient is then considered to have had a stroke. Stroke means that a portion of the brain has ceased to function because of a severe reduction in blood flow.

Carotid artery disease can present with many symptoms, most commonly a stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA), or the symptoms associated with stroke/TIA. These symptoms include, but are not limited to:

  • Weakness or loss of feeling in on side of the body
  • Visual disturbance
  • Dizziness
  • Speech impairment
  • Previous stroke or TIA

Varicose Veins

Veins return blood back to the heart. In order to prevent blood from flowing backward, there are several small leaflet valves located in veins. When these leaflet valves stop working properly or become damaged; blood begins to pool in the veins and enlarged, twisted cords, raise above the skin. These twisted cords are called varicose veins, and often they appear to be blue, red or flesh color. More often than not, they are a cosmetic problem, where life-threatening complications are uncommon.

Chronic Venous Insufficiency (CVI)

Chronic Venous Insufficiency (CVI) is a condition that occurs over time. Individuals that are susceptible to CVI usually have occupations that sit or stand for long periods of time. These two actions cause blood to pool, which in return weakens the vein walls and damages vein valves. Patients may experience swelling, tired, restless, legs; or CVI may occur because varicose veins have gone left untreated. CVI is usually not considered a serious health risk, and once you consult your physician they will be able to determine the best treatment option.

Patients may experience:

  • Swelling
  • Tired
  • Restless legs

Types of vein diseases:

  • Chronic Venous Insufficiency
  • Varicose Veins
  • Deep Vein Thrombus
  • Leg Ulcers - Venous and Arterial Types
  • Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)


Veins are hollow tubes with small valves that keep blood flowing in the correct direction. When the valves are open, blood flows in the direction of gravity, toward the feet. When the valves are closed, the blood is prevented from flowing into the legs, instead flowing from the extremities toward the lungs where it picks up oxygen. When the valves malfunction, blood flows backwards, toward the feet. To compensate, the veins bulge and swell. Because the blood is not flowing well inside the veins, it pools in the legs and feet, and increases pressure in the veins. Increased pressure in the veins causes the vein walls to weaken, and further damages the valves. This is called chronic venous insufficiency.


  • Chronic vein diseases including Deep Vein Thrombus, phlebitis (veins swell due to inflammation), varicose veins, inherited disorders, smoking, standing and sitting too long, pregnancy, and obesity can all cause CVI.


  • Ankle and leg swelling
  • Feeling of heaviness in the legs
  • Aching
  • Restlessness
  • Fatigue
  • Pain on standing
  • Cramps
  • Itching and tingling
  • Varicose veins

Varicose Veins

Varicose veins look ugly, but more importantly they can cause CVI. Here the valves malfunction causing ankles and legs to swell. Long standing varicose veins can lead to leg ulcers.

Primary varicose veins are associated with heredity, age, gender and pregnancy. Secondary varicose veins are deep vein occlusions associated with Deep Vein Thrombus DVT).

Exercise, weight loss, blood pressure control, leg elevation and compression stockings are standard treatments for varicose veins. Endovascular minimally invasive surgery is used to ablate the veins, improve appearance, and facilitate rerouting of blood to the lungs. 50% of those with various veins are likely to develop recurrent varicose veins.

Deep Vein Thrombus (DVT)

This is where blood clots form and in severe cases, ulcers form on the lower legs. Any obstruction in the veins can increase pressure further damaging the valves. Symptoms include leg pain and hardness of the calves. But, in about half the cases, there are no symptoms and no pain. It is not usually life-threatening, but can result in a pulmonary embolism. This is a life-threatening condition where the clot breaks loose and travels to the lungs.

Risk Factors:

The risk of DVT increases with the more risk factors you have.

  • History of previous DVT or venous thrombosis
  • Prolonged sitting or restricted mobility such as long distance travel
  • Age over 40
  • Surgery (especially orthopedic) or major injury
  • Prolonged bed rest or immobility
  • High blood pressure
  • Heart attack or stroke
  • Congestive heart failure
  • Chronic respiratory failure
  • Excessive weight
  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • Smoking
  • Varicose veins
  • High estrogen levels such as in pregnancy or use of birth control pills
  • Some forms of cancer


Inflammation of the superficial veins. Often there is no obvious cause. It can be caused by minor injuries to the leg veins. Simple phlebitis can be treated at home with leg elevation, compression stockings, warm compresses, and over- the- counter anti-inflammatory drugs. CVI can affect anyone. Men and women are equally affected. Treatment depends on the stage of the disease. Consult the experts at BASS. They have the experience and skills you can rely on to provide you with excellent care.